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It started when two canine scientists decide to become pen pals in an era of digital media...

Thursday, 19 June 2014

#SPARCS2014 is Now! You Can Be Here Too!

Get your James Hutson Dog: Origins wares here: society6
Hi World!

It's not often that anyone, anywhere in the world can just join a conference for free. Comic Con is not even that cool. But that's just how dogs roll!

SPARCS, the canine science conference we've been talking about for months, is taking place now, June 20-22, and you can watch the live broadcast for FREE just by going to.

The conference begins at 8:30 AM Eastern Time on Friday, June 20th, and speaker talk times and titles are listed here. Stay with us until 7:00 PM Easter Time on Sunday, June 22.


Last year, over 20,000 people joined the first SPARCS conference from around the world. This year, we're expecting to top those numbers! Our conference reminder post was shared 248 times and reached over 14,000 people in less than 24 hours.  

Do You Believe in Dog? is hosting this year's SPARCS conference, June 20-22, featuring daily themes of Aggression & Conflict, Personality & Temperament and finally Science in Training. Hear from some of the best minds in canine science from the comforts of your own home whether that be the bathroom, couch, kitchen table, we don't care. Your choice.


Access the Free, Live Broadcast between Friday, June 20 and Sunday, June 22 below!
In preparing for the conference, we discovered that not everyone realized that you can access the conference in real time for free. 


No login, just free access by going to the website. It seems too easy, but it's true!

Through the 3-day event, follow the presentations, and join in using #SPARCS2014. You can share your comments and questions on Twitter using: #SPARCS2014 Q


Part of our role as hosts is bringing the online audience into the conversation, so get on Twitter and join in!

Canine Science For All!

Julie & Mia


James Hutson of Bridge8 designed this awesomeness - you can order this design on EVERYTHING from Society6

Monday, 16 June 2014

Why Does My Dog Do THAT??

DYBID? gets to know a #NYC dog
Hi Mia,

Everything is different.

For the past two years I have been writing to you as you play out life in Australia -- “in the future” as I like to say. Others might call it a different time zone. To each their own. Now we’re sitting across from one another in my apartment working on our respective laptops as we prepare for #SPARCS2014.

Your arrival to #NYC has been such a breath of fresh air! Not only do we get to talk about our beloved topics of dog welfare, behavior, cognition, learning, training and everything-under-the sun-dog, but we get to do it while preparing to host an international TED-style canine science conference that anyone in the world can watch from their home!




One of the the things I enjoy so much about dog behavior research in general -- and Do You Believe in Dog? specifically -- is the feeling of community. There is a general perspective that researchers wear white lab coats and hole up in university laboratories muttering to themselves as they putter around with experiments until all hours of the night. While we might mutter to ourselves and putter around, the field of canine science very much has collaborative and collective elements. Researchers regularly meet to discuss methods, approaches and findings, and in recent years, scientists also share their findings with an increasingly interested audience. Science communication has become paramount in the field of canine research, and it would be pretty weird if dog science were all kept hush hush in academic research papers given its application.

For anyone who has ever wondered, “Why Does My Dog Do THAT (fill in the blank with whatever your version of ‘that’ is)," #SPARCS2014, a Free, Live Streaming canine science conference June 20-22, 2014 is for you. 

Since the inception of this blog, just under 2 years ago, we’ve had over 151,000 visitors. We look forward to seeing many of you virtually at #SPARCS2014!
As we countdown to #SPARCS2014, here’s a sample of our preparations (with a side of playing with papier mâché dogs and greeting dogs).

Every dog deserves play!

We Work!

Cats are invited, too

Night!

Julie

Saturday, 7 June 2014

What the pug is going on?

Hi Julie,

thanks for that awesome list of canine-related citizen science projects that anyone can sink their teeth into. 

I have a question for you: 

What do you see when a pug comes into your field of vision?

I'm asking you because (at the risk of inciting wrath of many) - honestly? I'm really bamboozled by some pedigree breeds and their popularity with so many people. 

How I feel
I'm not hating on pugs or pedigree dogs, and I don't mean any offence to people who hold their love of pugs close to their hearts. I really don't. I appreciate some people are very passionate about breeding certain kinds of dogs. I don't mean them disrespect. I think I just see dogs differently to them.

Pugs do make an excellent example to lay on the table for discussion when we consider inherited health and welfare issues in dog breeds. We could just as easily choose to look at any other breed where physical characteristics have been strongly selected for, like the Dalmatian, Great Dane, British Bulldog, Basset Hound, Dachshund, German Shepherd, Shar Pei, Pekingese, Neapolitan Mastiff... I could go on... but let's take the Pug as a case study today.

Flickr/pug
So tell me - what do you see?
Flickr/HelenMcDonald

I see a companion dog who can't really fit into the body we've given it. 

And by 'the body we've given it', I mean that through successive generations of human-dictated breeding that selects for an increasingly shortened muzzle (flat face), round head, big eyes, curly tail and rolls of skin, we've changed the face and body of pugs from this...

Pug circa 1890 (source)

...to this. I'll grant you this is an extreme example, but by golly, the fact that we've produced a dog lacking a defined muzzle like this makes me worry for the health and welfare of the dog. This dog really has no discernible nose or muzzle: 

Dogs should not have a concave face (source)
Does it matter? Well, if you DON'T want a dog that can breathe effectively, maybe not. 

The (in)ability to breathe
Although of course, it kind of makes for a sucky life for the dog. Not being able to breathe or moderate their temperature easily. I don't think many people in chronic respiratory distress report it feeling great. I don't think it's unreasonable to extrapolate that it causes dogs similar discomfort. The compromised breathing of these dogs isn't (as the tags on YouTube might lead some to believe) funny, nor cute, it's a red flag that says 'animal welfare problem'.

Pugs don't snore to be 'cute':



They snore because their airways are compromised.


Sometimes to the point that they can't even sleep without sitting up or having their head elevated in some other way (other examples - just search 'pug snoring' on YouTube - are by resting their head while sitting on the side of a bed/arm rest, etc.):


What stops pugs being able to breathe properly? Their nostrils - or nares - are really closed up (known as 'stenotic nares') compared to other breeds with a more typical muzzle shape.


Pug nostrils (Flickr/e_haya)
Nostrils of another small companion breed

You've given a great outline of stenotic nares and how surgery can be required to open the nostrils sufficiently, to allow adequate air flow, over on your Dog Spies blog.

Brachycephaly
To better understand brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome, Let's get some perspective on the how selective breeding has altered skull shape in dogs, especially the brachycephalic (extremely short-nosed) breeds, like pugs: 


Domestic dog skulls (source)

Canid skulls (source)

Now, I understand many people don't see the point of directly comparing a pug and a wolf, they're not the same, I get it. But Julie, you and I both know that pugs are trying to fit almost all the same equipment in terms of brain and eyes and tongue and sensory and breathing bits and pieces inside and around that skull as any domestic dog breed. And it's just not fitting.

Ay ay ay - the eyes (Flickr/audreyjm529)
(Flickr/rickharris)

Eyes
Pugs are also prone to eye problems because their eyes are usually more prominent (sticking out more) from their reduced skull.  I mean, not only do their eyes protrude to the point that they're highly likely to get grazes and ulcers (to the surface of their eye). Pugs eyes are also prone to not staying in the eye socket. If anyone out there really wants to see, just Google Image 'pug prolapsed eye'. 

Without a muzzle
Of course, when the lower jaw and throat are so short, it can turn basic things like eating and drinking a real challenge. 

Dogs are incredibly adaptable, though - look at how Shrek has modified his behaviour to be able to drink:




Pugs muzzles have vanished faster than their dentition has been able to adapt, so their mouths are often in need of veterinary attention, or modification:
Where do teeth go in this pug's mouth? (source)
From the head to the tail
The double-curled 'screw' tail is, predictably, linked to spinal problems such as hemivertebrae, where malformed vertebrae can result in instability or deformity, putting pressure on the spinal column, causing pain, affecting mobility and sometimes defecation control as well.


Hemivertebrae x-ray
And there's more...
The excessive skin folds around their face causes skin health issues, often requiring daily cleaning. Brachycephalic dogs have brains shown to be rotated differently to other skull types... I could go on. This is not an exhaustive list of the welfare related health issues seen in pugs Julie, but I think what we've covered here is more than enough to ask people to question what is cute and what is funny and what is acceptable to select for when choosing how our companion dogs should look. 

How can people see cute?
I know that pugs have a lot of those things humans perceive as cute. But is it worth it? 
Not for me. I think we should be helping pugs regain their muzzles, make some room for their bodies to fit in again. Recently, I heard from Jemima Harrison of Pedigree Dogs Exposed, that some breeders in Germany are trying. Look at one of their dogs:


(source)
What do you think Julie - is it more athletic? Does it have more muzzle? I think it's moving in the right direction. I bet it's an awesome companion animal. 

And isn't that what these guys are supposed to be all about? 

Don't you think we should focus on having healthy, functional dogs in our lives - and if their function is to be our companions - who gives a pug about the angle of their face? So long as they can breathe, eat, drink, exercise and share our lives for a really long time?


I know ALL dogs are likely to have some health problems. Pure breed or cross breed. The difference with pugs is that these physical traits that we know are detrimental to the dogs' wellbeing are being DELIBERATELY selected for, generation after generation.

In a completely different context, someone in Australia recently said "The standard you walk past, is the standard you accept" - I know a lot of breed enthusiasts have a reputation for being defensive. They reportedly assign blame for their breed's inherited disorders away from their own activities. But ignoring these problems - walking past them - isn't helping. It's accepting them. 


(Flickr/linuxlibrarian)
I think the scientific evidence against extreme morphology - like that we see in the pug - is overwhelming. We need to do better. We have excellent monitoring tools like VetCompass (UK & Australia) and LIDA (Australia) available to help us track and better understand the health of our dogs. Wouldn't it be great to see positive trends emerging in future scientific papers about pedigree dog health and welfare?

Science has changed the way I see pugs. I don't see cute or funny, I see a dog struggling to get by because of its form. I know that I feel differently to some people about dog breeds. I know I pay more attention to the health, wellbeing and behaviour of dogs, than how they look. 

I guess I just wanted to say to you, Julie - I think it's time to give pugs - and other breeds - a better quality of life. People need to stop selecting for, and exaggerating, features that make dogs' lives less than optimal. I'd like people to have fresh eyes next time they see a pug. Look past the funny and cute and consider the experience of the dog inside.

Let's face it - unlike pug tongues - in that regard, we've got plenty of room to move.

(source)
See you when I step off the plane later this week and I promise to have my ranty-pants off by then!

Mia

Further reading:

McGreevy P. & Nicholas F. (1999). Some Practical Solutions to Welfare Problems in Dog Breeding, Animal Welfare, 8 (4) 329-341.


Collins L.M., Asher L., Summers J. & McGreevy P. (2011). Getting priorities straight: risk assessment and decision-making in the improvement of inherited disorders in pedigree dogs., Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997), PMID:


Asher L., Diesel G., Summers J.F., McGreevy P.D. & Collins L.M. Inherited defects in pedigree dogs. Part 1: disorders related to breed standards., Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997), PMID:


Summers J.F., Diesel G., Asher L., McGreevy P.D. & Collins L.M. (2010). Inherited defects in pedigree dogs. Part 2: Disorders that are not related to breed standards., The Veterinary Journal , 183 (1) 39-45. PMID: 

McGreevy P. (2007). Breeding for quality of life., Animal Welfare, 16 (Supplement 1) 125-128. 


Roberts T., McGreevy P. & Valenzuela M. (2010). Human induced rotation and reorganization of the brain of domestic dogs., PloS one, PMID:

King, T., Marston, L.C. & Bennett, P.C. (2012). Breeding dogs for beauty and behaviour: Why scientists need to do more to develop valid and reliable behaviour assessments for dogs kept as companions,Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 137 (1-2) 12. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.11.016


White, D. (2013). Screening for hemivertebra in pugs. Veterinary Record173(1), 24-24.

Pedigree Dogs Exposed. Documentary. BBC. Available for purchase here.


Pedigree Dogs Exposed: Three Years On. Documentary. BBC. Available for purchase here.

Top photo attribution: Flickr/jonclegg

© Mia Cobb | Do You Believe in Dog? 2014